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Echo State Networks for Practical Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Unknown Dynamic Systems

on Wed, 02/09/2022 - 18:49
TitleEcho State Networks for Practical Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Unknown Dynamic Systems
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsJordanou JPanaioti, Antonelo EAislan, Camponogara E
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
KeywordsEcho State Networks, Model Predictive Control, reservoir computing

Nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) of industrial processes is changeling in part because the model of the plant may not be completely known but also for being computationally demanding. This work proposes an extremely efficient reservoir computing (RC)-based control framework that speeds up the NMPC of processes. In this framework, while an echo state network (ESN) serves as the dynamic RC-based system model of a process, the practical nonlinear model predictive controller (PNMPC) simplifies NMPC by splitting the forced and the free responses of the trained ESN, yielding the so-called ESN-PNMPC architecture. While the free response is generated by the forward simulation of the ESN model, the forced response is obtained by a fast and recursive calculation of the input-output sensitivities from the ESN. The efficiency not only results from the fast training inherited by RC but also from a computationally cheap control action given by the aforementioned novel recursive formulation and the computation in the reduced dimension space of input and output signals. The resulting architecture, equipped with a correction filter, is robust to unforeseen disturbances. The potential of the ESN-PNMPC is shown by application to the control of the four-tank system and an oil production platform, outperforming the predictive approach with a long-short term memory (LSTM) model, two standard linear control algorithms, and approximate predictive control.